Perugia, October 29 014 -Umbria is one of the Italian regions with the highest incidence of immigrants (+ 8.1% compared to the national average and 11.1% of the residents), mainly women (56%). But the region lies with a higher than the national average even for newborns (15.1%, 19.6% of births) and the presence of foreign students (almost 14,000 students, 14% of the total ), of which about 55% were born in Italy (the national average is 51.7%). Lower than the national average is instead given the Umbrian regarding the acquisition of Italian citizenship. And ‘what emerges from the “Statistical Report on Immigration 2014” in the chapter on Umbria, edited by Bigi and Francescaglia. The dossier, sponsored by the National Office Against Racial Discrimination, refers to 2013. Last year – according to the Report – foreigners living in Umbria were 99,922, of which 76,861 in the province of Perugia (which represent 11.6% of the local population) and 23,061 in the province of Terni (10.0%). Non-EU citizens residing legally is 68,715, of which 41,115 have allowed a long period (there were 37,845 at the end of 2012), while the rest has a permit to expire. Faced with a numerical presence of residents remained almost stable between 2012 and 2013, the proportion of domestic permits expire (decreased by about 3,000 units a year) and long-term permits (increased by almost 3,300) has changed considerably favor of the latter. This is explained on the one hand with the economic crisis has dampened growth of the flows, as confirmed by the decrease in the number of permits issued for the first time during the year (only in the province of Perugia’s been – according to data from the police headquarters – from 21,178 in 2012 to 19,650 in 2013, with a particular decrease of those for work: from about 15 thousand to just under 11,000), and the other with the search for a stabilization for himself and his family, as also indicates number of family reunification (13,300). Among the non-EU nationality represented more priority needs still Albania (16,209), followed by Morocco (10 928) and Ukraine (5,154). Among the EU, with about 23,113 residents, is Romania that confirmed its first place Umbria recording a new annual increase (they were 21,051 in 2012) after the peak reached in 2011 (24,321).
About 7,375 newborns in Umbria in 2013, while foreign (1,444, of which 1,156 in the province of Perugia and 288 in the province of Terni) accounted for 19.6% of the total with a figure above the national average (15.1% ). Are, finally, the acquisition of Italian citizenship 1,518 (1,174 in Perugia and 344 in Terni), averaging 15.8 per 1,000 foreign residents (the national average is 21.6 per thousand).
Over time, the socio-economic characteristics of the region have made Umbria very attractive for migrants, but with the economic crisis, the labor market has changed in Umbria, especially hard hit the component of male workforce (both Italian and foreign) . In 2013 new hires were down for immigrants (-1.3%) as they recovered slightly to Italians (0.7%) and unemployment is also increased more for foreigners than for natives (the rate of immigrants stood at 20.7%, nearly 12 points higher than that of Italian, 8.5%), so that foreigners now account for nearly a third of the unemployed. In 2013, for those born abroad, the balance between hiring and termination of employment was negative (surplus of discontinued) to 2,942 units, with the exception of the agricultural sector, with a particularly steep decline for the industry (-6 , 4%). Unlike the male presence of foreign women workers has continued to grow and, unlike a few years ago, in 2012 was much higher (17.1%) than men (11.8%). In Umbria, 12.2% of foreign-born is active in agriculture (against an overall average of 2.9%) and 35% in industry (28%), while “only” 48.2% in the tertiary (69.1%). The foreign workers for 57.5% are employed in community services and personal services, to 30% in the hotel business and catering. Among men ofoto(14)ver a third (33.6%) work in construction, 24.1% in agriculture and a fifth in the tourist-hotel sector.

As many as 71% of foreign-born workers are employed in micro businesses (1-9 employees), 47% in unskilled occupations (as in growth compared to the past), with lower wages on average by 30% compared to the Italians and monthly salaries that, as a result of the crisis, they have fallen more than those of the Italians (-8.4 percentage points versus -6.2).
Among the 15 most numerous nationalities of Umbria, the Chinese have the highest employment rate (68%); a rate still above 50% is held by the Tunisian authorities, Romanian, Macedonian, Moldovan and Indian, while a rate below 40% characterizes the Moroccan community, Ecuador and Nigeria.
Umbria firms immigrants are 7.8% of the total (national average 8.2%), with a positive balance between those initiated and closed during the year (+271 units, or + 3.3%; the the national average is 4.1%) and in contrast with the Italian companies (-1.4%), mainly in construction (31%) and trade (30%). Holders of individual firms (representing 80.4% of all those immigrants) come mostly from Morocco, Romania, Albania and China. And ‘the Romanian community to have sent more remittances to their country (21.6 million euro, 32.9% of the total amount left for other countries from the region: 65.7 million euro), followed by Moroccans ( 4.3 million), Albania (3.5 million), Ecuador (3 million).
With regard to the students of foreign origin, who in Umbria an incidence greater than 9.0% of the national average, the data confirm the strong presence of the second generation, with peak incidence in the nursery and primary schools (a trend confirmed in the last 4 years). Especially foreign students 3,645 are in pre-school (where they account for 15.3%, of which 89% were born in Italy); 5,781 in the primary (incidence of 14.8% to 71.1% were born in Italy); 3,637 in the secondary level (15.5%, of which 41.0% was born in Italy and 4,278 in the secondary level (11.6% to 15.6% were born in Italy). As for the address chosen in high school: 24.8% attended a high school (since an increase compared to previous years, which amounted to 34.8% in the province of Terni, against a national average of 20.4%), while the the vast majority has been moving towards a vocational school (36.6%, with a peak of 37.5% in the province of Perugia) or technical. The foreign students from Europe (10,575) account for 61.0% of the total and including stand Albanians (3,877), Romanians (3,609) and Macedonian (967). The Africans (3,884), mainly from Morocco (2447), Tunisia (281) and Algeria, accounting for 22.4% of the total, from the American 9% and Asia 7.5% of the total.